Monthly Archives: November 2017


Pneumonia is a lung condition wherein the parenchyma of the lung becomes inflamed. The inflammation could occur due to a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. At times, one may develop this infection after being admitted to a hospital for the treatment of another condition. Under such circumstances, one is diagnosed with hospital-acquired pneumonia. When the infection is acquired outside a hospital, due to contact with an infected individual, one is diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia. Aspiration pneumonia occurs due to the aspiration of a foreign object or the contents of the stomach into the lower respiratory tract. On the basis of anatomy, pneumonia is classified into lobar, lobular, interstitial, and millary pneumonia.

Causal Organisms for Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a common condition that affects about 1 out of 100 people every year. The causative organism in more than half of the cases is a bacterium called Streptococcus pneumoniae. Other bacteria that might be responsible for causing this lung condition include Hemophylus influenza, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella, Chlamydia, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Pathophysiology of Lobar Pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia is mainly classified into lobar and lobular penumonia. Lobar pneumonia starts in the alveoli and spreads through the pores of Kohn. On the other hand, lobular pneumonia (bronchopneumonia) starts in the terminal and respiratory bronchioles, and spreads through the bronchial walls into the alveoli.

In case of lobar pneumonia, there could be homogeneous consolidation of one or more lung lobes. On the other hand, bronchopneumonia is characterized by patchy consolidation of alveolar and bronchial inflammation, often involving both the lower lobes.
The stages of lobar pneumonia include:

➠ 24-hour congestion stage
➠ Red hepatization stage
➠ Gray hepatization stage
➠ Resolution stage

24 Hour Congestion Stage
This is the first stage that occurs within 24 hours of infection. The lung is affected by vascular congestion and alveolar edema. Microscopic examination shows the presence of many bacteria and a few neutrophils.

Red Hepatization
The red hepatization stage is observed when the red blood cells and fibrin enter the alveoli. The lung tissue becomes red and firm. This leads to difficulty in breathing or rapid breathing.

Gray Hepatization Stage
In this stage, fibrin and the dying red and white blood cells collect in the alveolar spaces. The sputum contains a tinge of blood or purulent discharge. Atelectasis, which refers to the reduction of available area within the lung for gas exchange, could also occur.

Resolution Stage
In this stage, the enzymes in the lungs digest the exudate. The white blood cells fight off the causative organisms and the remains may be coughed up.


Is your daily commute harming your health?

The daily commute to and from work can be incredibly tiring and frustrating, not to mention time-consuming. But could it also be harming your health?

Well, the research from numerous scientists and health experts from around the world certainly suggests so. From the hours of inactivity to the passive inhalation of vehicle exhaust fumes, your daily commute to and from work could be the most damaging aspect of your life as far as your health is concerned.

How is my commute damaging my health?

Millions of us commute to and from work every day. It can be a stressful experience with the average total commute being 56 minutes nationwide. However, in London we spend 1.5 hours commuting to and from work everyday.

Here are these commuting habits can harm your health:

Diet – If you’re out of the house early ready for your lengthy commute to work, and back late, it’s likely you are cutting time from somewhere. Often, it’s your diet that suffers. Evidence has shown that many people use their daily commute as a time to consume snacks, from unhealthy coffees and bacon sandwiches in the morning to chocolate, crisps and soft drinks laden with sugar in the evenings.

Mental health – An often under-estimate effect of a daily commute the damage it can do to someone’s mental health. Long term tiredness can make you feel stressed and irritable and the stresses of the journey can also have a toil on your mental health.

Exhaust fumes – There is evidence to suggest that you will breathe in more pollution sitting in a car during heavy traffic than you would if you are outside. Dirty exhaust fumes get sucked into the car through the air filters and get trapped in the car. The Royal College of Physicians state that pollution is responsible for 40,000 early deaths per year In the UK.

Wasted time – Finally, with so much time spent travelling to and from the workplace, it’s often exercising that is cut-back to allow time for the daily routine. Research has shown that those performing a daily commute to their workplace are likely to have a less active lifestyle away from the office.

Can I make my commute healthy?

We now know that our commute can be incredibly unhealthy for our body and mind, but what can we do about it?

Cycle or walk to work – This may not be an option for everyone, but if possible, why not explore the option of walking or cycling to work, certainly during the warmer months of the year. Many employers now offer a cycle to work scheme which can help cover some of the cost of buying a bicycle, for example, while many modern office blocks also have shower and changing facilities for staff that need them. So, if you’re within a reasonable distance of your workplace, leave the car at home and get your day off to a healthy start.

The Difference Migraine Headaches and Tension Headaches

The throbbing, ever-present pain in your head makes it tricky to understand whether the pain you are experiencing is a tension headache or a migraine. However, you need to recognize which category the headache falls into so that you can get the right treatment and alleviate the symptoms. Knowing the type of headache will also allow you to find ways to avoid or minimize the occurrence.

Tension Headaches

Around 90% of headaches fall under this category. Usually, these symptoms do not occur frequently and when they do, they disappear after a few hours. However, in some people, the symptoms can come on frequently and persist the entire day.

Migraine Headaches

Migraines are not as common as tension headaches, but their symptoms and effects are more draining. The symptoms can last for 4 hours to 48 hours and they vary widely in intensity, duration, and even the exact symptoms.


In tension headaches, the symptoms are not severe, but they are persistent. You feel pain on both sides of the head. However, this pain will not be a throbbing one like you get for migraines. Rather, it will feel like tight pressure in your head. The neck, muscles, and shoulders may feel tense or stiff and you may experience soreness in your temples.

In migraines, you may feel nauseous while one side of your head may experience moderate to severe throbbing pain. You may be sensitive to light and sound, there is temporary loss of vision while your face, eyes, temples, jaw or neck sting If you are physically active, the pain worsens. Sometimes, you may also see dots, curly lines and flashing lights before your eyes.

The Reasons For The Symptoms

In tension headaches, exhaustion, tiredness, worry and stress could be the main reasons. All of these factors cause your neck, scalp and jaw muscles to tighten; and this tightness eventually comes out as pain.

Migraines are generally genetic in nature. Researchers do not know the exact cause. However, the environment also plays a certain role. Bright lights, loud noises or even fluctuating hormones can trigger the symptoms.

Recommended Treatment

For treatment of frequent tension headaches, you must visit your doctor. Depending on the cause, you may have to take prescription antidepressants. Over-the-counter painkillers such as aspirin, naproxen and ibuprofen can help to alleviate the symptoms but are not recommended for long term use because of possible adverse effects. Self-relaxation techniques, chiropractic care and acupuncture provide symptomatic relief and are gentler, safer alternatives.

The best way to minimize your migraines is to identify your trigger factors and try and avoid them. Understand your sleeping and eating habits. You can also visit a chiropractor to reduce frequency and intensity of your migraines.


The Internet is the world’s greatest way of disseminating information. That said, a little knowledge can be a dangerous thing. In this case specifically, the wealth of medical information available on the internet has spawned “cyberchondria” – the tendency to look up your headache and diagnose yourself with a brain tumor. Or to post a vague health complaint on a forum and find yourself inundated with dozens of different “diagnoses” from not-doctors.

Yes, it’s wonderful that there are reliable medical resources on the web. But it is not wonderful to diagnose yourself via these resources, then argue with your doctor’s diagnosis, which was made via examination, testing, and, you know, actual medical knowledge.

Don’t be a cyberchondriac. Here’s how:

Seek Information, Not a Diagnosis

If you are having weird health issues, go ahead and look them up on authentic websites. You can turn toward sites like MayoClinic, WebMD, MedlinePlus and the National Institutes of Health.

Do not go into this expecting to find the final answer to your issue – at best, it may help clarify what’s going on and connect your current symptoms to other things you may not have thought of. This can facilitate a better conversation with a doctor in real life.

When you land on a page about your symptoms, read the “Causes” critically. Don’t ignore possible causes like caffeine, insufficient sleep and acidic foods and immediately jump on TUMOR! OMG!! Because it’s probably not. The reason these reputable sites are reputable is because they are thorough – they list all the possible causes. Now if only they would list the actual probability of each cause…

Don’t Argue With Your Doctor

Once you’ve done your research, go see your doctor. You could always skip the research part and just make the appointment, but the fact that you’re reading this speaks to the fact that you won’t. So print off your checklists and whatever page has convinced you that you have multiple organ failure because this blister won’t go away. Show them to your doctor, describe your symptoms, and submit to the testing.

When the results come back and show that you just need better shoes, take the doctor’s word for it. She has many years of training and experience behind her, she is backed up by modern technology, and that combination doesn’t miss things that are going to kill you today. If you still have nagging doubts, seek a second opinion. From a doctor, not a forum.

Don’t Attempt to Treat Yourself

This one has a caveat – if your symptoms are minor, like the flu or seasonal allergies, feel free to look up some remedies. is a reputable resource that includes all warnings, contraindications and possible interactions. But if you have symptoms that have not yet been diagnosed, don’t do the guesswork yourself. See the doctor.